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BUL 862

Short-season, high-altitude gardeningShort-season, high-altitude gardening
SHORT-SEASON, HIGH-ALTITUDE GARDENING

Landscaping with Native Plants

Stephen L. Love, Kathy Noble, Jo Ann Robbins, Bob Wilson, Tony McCammon

Landscaping with Native Plants

Introduction

There are many reasons to consider a native plant landscape in Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude regions, including water savings, decreased maintenance, healthy and adapted plants, and a desire to create a local theme around your home. Most plants sold for landscaping are native to the eastern United States and the moist climates of Europe. They require acid soils, constant moisture, and humid air to survive and remain attractive. Most also require a longer growing season than we have available in the harshest climates of Idaho. Choosing to landscape with these unadapted plants means accepting the work and problems of constantly re-creating a suitable artificial environment. Native plants will help create a landscape that is more “comfortable” in the climates and soils that surround us, and will reduce the resources necessary to maintain the landscape.

The single major factor that influences Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude climates is limited summer moisture. Snow and rainfall are relatively abundant in the winter, but for 3–4 months beginning in June we receive only a few inches of rain. Our environment is so dry that we have to apply 20–30 in of water in the summer to keep things green. Many of the high-desert regions receive only 5–12 in of total annual precipitation, with only a small fraction of that coming in the summer. The high-altitude regions of eastern Idaho and the central mountains may receive double the annual moisture of the deserts, but they still have limited summer rainfall. The same dry summer precipitation trends exist in the mountain valleys of northern Idaho, though more moisture falls here than in any other region of the state.

Three additional factors have shaped the characteristics of plants native to the harsh climates of Idaho. The first is low humidity. Plants adapted to Idaho’s dry summer climates must be able reduce their tendency to lose moisture in the dry Idaho air. The second factor is the short frost-free season. Native plants must be able to survive and grow through the spring and fall frosts and be able to complete their life cycle in a short period of time. The third is bright, intense sunlight that can scorch and damage the leaves of unadapted plants. Sunlight intensity becomes more problematic at altitudes above 5,000 ft.

Understanding our local environment and the characteristics of the plants that inhabit our region helps us make educated decisions about using those plants to create an attractive landscape. The way many native grasses and perennials withstand Idaho’s dry summers is to rapidly complete their life cycle and go dormant during the period of summer heat. This is a good survival trait, but may not contribute to our concept of a beautiful yard. You can deal with this in two ways: you can choose to add supplemental water to encourage summer-long greenery and color, or you can adopt a concept of beauty that is not dependent on dark green and instead incorporates tones of soft sage, gray, and pale gold.

Local climates within Idaho have a definite impact on how we design a landscape and choose native plants. Landscaping in high-desert areas will require using the most drought-tolerant plants available. A study of the plants growing naturally in Idaho’s high-desert regions will show that creating an irrigation-free landscape with summer-long attraction can be a challenge (a fascinating one). The few trees and shrubs that survive these climates grow along water courses or around seeps and springs. Native grasses and perennials go dormant in midsummer with only very few fall-blooming exceptions. When landscaping with native plants in the desert climates, expect to use xeriscape principles or to apply supplemental water, soil amendments, and fertilizer to create an environment where less durable plants can grow. Either option is viable, but your choice will determine not only the final appearance, but also the plants that can be used and the maintenance techniques needed to keep those plants healthy.

Compared to the deserts, the mountain regions are easier places for creating native landscapes. Many trees, shrubs, perennials, and grasses are completely at home on mountain ridges and adjacent valleys. With minimal irrigation and other inputs, you can create an attractive and pleasant four-season landscape. In the mountains, using native plants reduces the need to amend your soil, because many of these plants actually prefer shallow, rocky soils.

Many gardeners are under the impression that native plant landscapes are difficult to design and establish, and look unkempt once in place. Others believe that native plants lack variation in color, texture, and form key elements in landscape design. Nowadays, more and more native plants are available to choose from, and landscapers have succeeded in creating a wide variety of designs with them. Native plantings can be informal and low maintenance; they can mimic traditional landscape designs; or they can be formal in the Italian or French tradition, with hedges and a geometric layout. You can select any style that is compatible with the architecture of your house and/or that fits your personal tastes.


Limited summer moisture
Much of Idaho experiences limited summer moisture.
Intense sunlight conditions
High elevation regions are subject to intense sunlight conditions.

The Concept of Native

What exactly is a “native” plant? In the narrowest sense, plants native to our yard are those that actually grew there before cultivation and construction disturbed the site. If we expand the definition in logical increments, we can consider native plants to be those that reside in a local ecosystem, state, or region. These broader definitions begin to give us the diversity we need to create an interesting landscape.

Anyone wishing to plant a native landscape can choose a definition that is personally comfortable. You may prefer a narrower definition if your goal is to protect the ecological integrity of an undisturbed site and limit the importation of plants not originally present. If you want to choose from the widest variety of plants adapted to your climate and soil, you can include plants that reside in a contiguous region with similar climate and geology. For those of us in Idaho, this more flexible definition means we can consider any plants found within the Intermountain West. By adopting this broader definition, we can include species that extend the season of color, add to the number of attractive trees and shrubs, and avoid the repetitive appearance that results from limitations in plant choice. For the purposes of this publication, the authors have adopted a broad, regional definition of native with the intent to provide the widest set of options for the landscaper.


Rock garden
A rock garden is one form of native plant landscape.

Landscape Principles for Native Plant Gardens

Attractive native landscapes are subject to the same principles as traditional landscapes. They incorporate elements of color, balance, texture, unity, variety, and interest. Many years of experience with traditional landscape plants and techniques have provided knowledge that allows us to create desirable effects. The trick is to find native plant combinations that work together in the same fashion. Landscaping with native plants adapted to the cold climates of Idaho is a new concept, and we are just beginning to understand the possibilities. This unlimited potential for creativity is part of what makes native plant landscaping intriguing.

Historically, native plant landscapes tended toward a naturalized style with little or no formal structure. There is no reason to limit native landscapes to an informal style. Native plants don’t determine landscape form—they become the elements and then style dictates use and presentation.

Even if you aim for an informal style, randomly scattering a mixture of native seeds in a landscape may not create the desired effect. Native landscape designs should follow the same principles as traditional design. They should 1) concentrate observer impact by using focal points; 2) create flow by using repetition and pattern; and 3) define usable space and create opportunities to enjoy the landscape.

A formal garden is usually laid out in a geometric pattern with well-defined borders. With some research, we can identify native plants that may effectively be formed into living borders, provide movement and texture, and give harmonious color schemes, all while staying within established bounds of a formal design.

Some landscape features are more difficult to create with native plants than with their traditional counterparts—particularly lawn and leisure areas. If these are important to you, it may be appropriate to consider a mixed-zone landscape. Mixed zones are created by including a limited area of trees and turf close to the house for play and entertainment, and then transitioning to native areas as you move outward toward property boundaries. There are as many potential versions of this landscaping style as there are homeowners. Some may wish to landscape the front yard using native plants, while creating a more traditional lawn and tree area in the backyard. Others may desire the opposite effect, with the backyard phasing into existing wildlands. Creating a mixed-zone landscape requires careful initial design planning and sometimes extensive renovation of an existing property to supply the water, soil, and maintenance needs of plants in each area of the yard.


Existing vegetation and views
Native mountain landscapes often take advantage of existing vegetation and views.

Establishing Native Landscapes and Gardens

The first step in establishing any landscape is to evaluate the site, gain an understanding of existing features and problems, and determine use areas. If you own property that partially retains its native habitat, it is important that the design capitalizes on as much of the existing form and vegetation as possible. This situation will be most common in rural mountain and desert regions. Once you have a firm idea of the general layout and know the limitations and possibilities presented by your property, you can complete a detailed design map. For this you might want to get the help of a landscaping expert. If you prefer to do it yourself, many books have been written about landscape design, which you might consult.

A second consideration in establishing the landscape is weed control. Eliminating weeds early in the process will save many hours of labor later on. Use a general systemic herbicide on the entire property if you have no need or desire to save existing plants. If native plants are already in place, do some hand weeding and spot spraying to eliminate undesirable weeds, brush, and trees. Practice preservation while adding plants in key locations to enhance what is already in place. Additional weed control will be necessary after planting as a result of soil disturbance, which will bring weed seeds to the surface where they can germinate. If you are planting seedlings and plants rather than seeds, you might be able to use a preemergent herbicide to control many of the weeds that will emerge after planting.

The next step in the installation process is to grade, prepare, and amend the soil. Although native plants are adapted to local climate and soils, they still benefit from good growing conditions. Also, soil left over after construction of a new home is often of very poor quality. Most native plants need good drainage. Grade and shape the landscape to carry water away from native perennial and shrub beds. It may be possible to channel the water to low areas that can be developed into water features (such as a rain garden) or where water trapping will support the native shrubs and trees which would naturally occur around a seep or spring. If the soil is heavy clay or compacted, amend with small rocks, grit, and sand to improve permeability. Organic matter, such as manure or compost, can be incorporated, but use it sparingly. Most native plants recommended in this publication prefer somewhat lean native soils. Adding soil amendments is discouraged unless the soil is so poor that even weeds are struggling to grow.

Following soil preparation, install nonplant elements of the landscape. This will include “hardscapes” such as fences, decks, paths, rock or paver surfaces, streams or water features, dry stream beds, outbuildings, landscaping boulders, and sculptures. Because the design is native, it will be more pleasing if stone, sculptures, and other elements are obtained from local quarries and artists. The Bureau of Land Management and the National Forest Service will allow homeowners to apply for a permit to harvest stone from specific locations on public land for a nominal fee.

After hardscapes are in place, it is time to plant. In areas of the landscape that have native flora, do everything possible to avoid disturbing existing plants. Limit damage to roots of existing plants by using seed to establish new plants among the old. If transplants are used, place them as far away from resident plants as feasible in order to minimize damage. Do not crowd native plants; give them room to grow. Space between plants, even when they are fully grown, allows for easy cleanup and will limit disease and other problems.

Fences and sidewalks
Permanent "hardscape" features such as fences and sidewalks should be installed before planting.

It is important to understand that drought-tolerant plants are not drought tolerant until they have a chance to grow a good root system and become acclimatized. This may take up to three years for trees and shrubs. Whether you plant seeds or potted plants, they will require consistent watering for the first summer to germinate and/or become established. During the first week, newly planted natives should be watered every day in warm or hot weather. During the second week, water the plants every other day. For the subsequent month or 6 weeks, apply enough water to wet the ground several inches down every week or 10 days. For the rest of the first summer, plants should be watered on demand (when they appear dark colored or wilty) until fall frosts become frequent.

During the second summer, irrigate native plants every week or 10 days. Trees and shrubs will need water less often, but should be watered deeply. Gradually wean the plants from water in the fall by cutting back on the length of time you water. During the third year after planting, water drought-tolerant native plants only in the very hottest part of the summer, or if rainfall is lacking entirely. Unless you live in a desert region, you can often get by without irrigating drought-tolerant native plants after the first three years.

Not all native plants are adapted to dry soils. Take the time to educate yourself about the water needs of all plants in your landscape, group them according to water requirements, and irrigate them properly. Over-irrigation can kill the most drought-tolerant native plants, but in most cases they simply become overgrown and spindly when overwatered.

Within Idaho’s short-season climates, high and low annual temperatures may differ by as much as 20°F between warmest and coldest locales. Precipitation ranges from less than 10 in to over 35 in. For this reason, native landscapes will take different forms in different locations, and plants adapted to local conditions should be used. To bring some order to this diversity, we group native landscapes into four major categories, depending on conditions of adaptation: dry high-desert landscapes (DHD); modified, water-supplemented, high-desert landscapes (MHD); high-elevation mountain landscapes (HEM); and northern Idaho mountain/valley landscapes (NMV).


Native plants need only natural precipitation
Many native plants need only natural precipitation to thrive.

Designing a Dry High-Desert Landscape (DHD)

Due to lack of precipitation, the high-desert regions, such as those within the Snake River Valley, provide the greatest challenge in Idaho for native-plant landscaping. In these regions, maintaining plants without irrigation means creating a true desert-like landscape. Even many native plants are at a disadvantage in these environments and may not remain attractive or live for very long. Luckily, there are many hardy grasses and perennials that do well in the waterless desert landscape, although the selection of adapted shrubs and trees is limited. The fact that most native desert plants are naturally adapted to alkaline soils, and many prefer soils with high pH, makes plant selection easier.

Another challenge in designing a DHD landscape is creating interest and beauty in the garden during the late summer and winter seasons. Many adapted plants will go dormant in the heat of summer, resulting in a garden of tans and browns. Also, without dominant tree and shrub specimens, the winter landscape may lack form. You can remedy this by choosing your plants carefully, and by making use of landscaping stone, dry stream beds, sculptures, or other nonplant materials. A DHD landscape is more interesting if the ground has contour and slope instead of being completely flat.

To create a landscape that will remain attractive all year, conscientiously seek plants that flower in the summer, exhibit good fall color, and have interesting winter form. Also include many spring and early summer bloomers—plants that are much easier to find. Tables 1–4 provide a list of potentially useful native plants for the nonirrigated, high-desert landscape (designated DHD in the “Regional Adaptation” column).


Drought-tolerant plants
The dry desert landscape takes advantage of many native drought-tolerant plants.

Designing a Modified High-Desert Landscape (MHD)

Occasionally irrigating the high-desert landscape will allow you to grow many native trees, shrubs, and perennials that otherwise would not survive. Applying less than an inch of water every 3 to 4 weeks will expand your plant selection to include outstanding shrubs and trees with attractive fall leaves, late flowering shrubs or perennials, tall and graceful grasses, or drought-tolerant evergreens. This makes it easier to provide four-season interest and beauty.

An interesting option for designing a modified high-desert landscape is to create multiple irrigation zones. This strategy can create some of the most interesting and attractive landscapes possible within Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude regions. It will also allow you to include lawn and shade areas around the home, while maintaining the central features of the native landscape.

When creating a high-desert, mixed-zone landscape, the most important design decisions involve the irrigation system. The design must independently apply water to high water use, moderate water use, and low water use areas. This is a relatively simple process with a new, undeveloped landscape. Remodeling an existing irrigation system may be considerably more difficult and expensive and may require the services of a professional irrigation designer.

You might also be interested in including a water feature in your modified high-desert landscape. A small moist site will allow you to grow water-loving plants that have a long season of bloom and remain green all summer. Choose plants for artificial, high-desert water features that thrive in alkaline soils—even though the soil is damp, the pH is often still high. Tables 1 through 4 provide a list of potentially useful native plants for the MHD landscape (also designated MHD in the “Regional Adaptation” column).


Plant selection
Without careful plant selection, a native landscape may appear drab in the fall.
Season-long color
The addition of limited water makes season-long color possible in the desert landscape.

Designing a High-Elevation Mountain Landscape (HEM)

The high-elevation mountainous regions of central and southern Idaho provide ideal environments for creating beautiful native plant landscapes. Many short-season perennials and shrubs are well adapted to the local climates and soils. When used in mountain landscapes under conditions they prefer, these plants are healthier, bloom longer, and live to be older than when grown where they are marginally adapted. Consequently, in these locations we can easily create mountain landscapes that have summer-long color. With the inclusion of attractive evergreen shrubs and trees, mountain landscapes effectively provide four-season interest.

Although mountain regions are ideal environments for many native plants, you will still need to choose the right plants and plant them in the right spot. Rocky, south-facing slopes will require drought-tolerant shrubs and perennials. North-facing slopes and canyon bottoms may be suitable for large deciduous and evergreen trees and other moisture-loving plants. In some spots, you may need to select shade-tolerant understory plants as companions for closely spaced trees.

Occasional watering will allow you to use a greater diversity of plant species and extend the season of beauty for these plants. This will require a simple irrigation system, typically sprinkler or drip. Drip irrigation hoses can be installed on top of the soil and covered with a light layer of mulch. In many mountain climates, established native plants may need only a few thorough irrigations during the hottest part of the summer.

As with the high-desert landscape, zone landscaping based on water need is a very effective way to create a high-elevation garden with color and interest. By grouping plants with similar water needs together in the same irrigation zone, you can more easily grow water-loving plants where consistent color is desired, such as close to entrances or patios.

Zone landscaping in a mountain garden also helps reduce the challenge of soil preparation. As a general rule, moisture-loving plants require deep soils that are high in organic matter. Preparing soil for these plants means removing rocks larger than fist-sized, adding at least 8 in of compost or other organic matter, and tilling the bed to a depth of 12–18 in. For the moderate water-use plant beds, large rocks should be removed, 4–8 in of compost added, and soil tilled to a depth of 8–12 in. Beds for drought-tolerant plants require little or no rock removal, the addition of minimal compost (possibly 2–3 in), and only shallow tillage. Less soil preparation means less work and expense, meaning a drought-tolerant garden is far less expensive to install than a garden designed for water-loving plants.

Another highly effective landscape technique in mountainous regions is the development of large naturalized areas. These may take the form of meadows, woodlands, or shrub thickets. Use existing vegetation as a starting place for these areas, then judiciously add wildflowers, shrubs, trees, and understory plants that will add to existing color and texture. In order to be attractive, these naturalized areas should be carefully planned rather than left to chance. It takes effort to establish the preferred natives and to control or eliminate unwanted species. However, once established, naturalized areas can become largely self-sustaining.

Many landscapes in mountainous regions have natural water features such as rivers, creeks, springs, or bogs. Where possible, use these features to their greatest potential by developing waterside attractions. When modifying a natural water feature, avoid practices that may damage the fragile riparian zone (native plants growing at the water’s edge). Do this by preventing runoff directly into water features; planting ground covers on nearby slopes to prevent erosion; avoiding cultivation next to the water; maintaining much of the native vegetation on stream banks; and planting additional species that complement the function of the existing plants. Many towns have adopted ordinances dictating chemical-free zones along rivers, streams, and other riparian zones, and some require that only native riparian plants be grown on the banks of rivers and streams. Before modifying a natural water feature, check local ordinances to see if any apply to your property.

Tables 1–4 provide a list of potentially useful native plants for the HEM landscape (also designated HEM in the “Regional Adaptation” column).


Soil preparation
Soil preparation is a critical step in establishing a healthy native landscape.

Designing a Northern Idaho Mountain/Valley Landscape (NMV)

Idaho’s NMV landscapes share many features with the high-altitude mountainous regions. However, there are some very important differences. Northern Idaho is typically much lower in elevation, has higher rates of annual precipitation, experiences cooler summer temperatures, and can have considerably longer frost-free seasons. As a result of these distinctive climate characteristics, the native soils and vegetation are inherently unique. The indigenous plants on both valleys and slopes consist principally of tall evergreen and associated understory species. The soils in the valleys are generally deep, moist, and oftentimes exhibit poor drainage. The soils on the slopes can be stony and shallow. All of the soils are relatively acidic. These environmental characteristics impact the choices we make for native landscape plants in this region.

Most communities in northern Idaho are situated in valley locations. Drought in these sites is infrequent and short-lived, although there is typically a summer dry season. Under these conditions, the palette of adapted native plants suitable for landscaping is distinct from any other region in Idaho. Drought-tolerant plants that are central to the high-desert and high-elevation native landscape may not survive the relatively moist conditions of northern Idaho.

One of the best techniques for landscaping in northern Idaho’s valleys is to preserve and design around existing forest vegetation, by using and managing shade-tolerant and understory plants. While many wildflowers may not survive or bloom in the shady forest landscape, you can still create beauty with the textures and forms of woody shrubs and ground covers.

Natural water features, including streams, bogs, and lakes, are common in Idaho’s northern valleys. You can create pleasant waterside surroundings by protecting and enhancing these water features through judicious placement of moisture-loving trees, shrubs, and perennials.

It is relatively simple to mix traditional and native landscape plants that are adapted to the northern valleys. This region provides most of the growth requirements for both types of plants. For that reason, it is easy to diverge from an all-native theme in the landscape. If you would like to stick to a predominantly native landscape, a carefully developed landscape plan might help you stay on course.

After installing a new landscape in northern Idaho mountain/valley regions, you may need only occasional irrigation for plants to thrive and grow. Larger trees and shrubs may require 2–3 years of supplemental watering to become fully established, but one growing season of establishment irrigation is usually sufficient for many shrubs and perennials.

Tables 1–4 provide a list of potentially useful native plants for the northern Idaho mountain/valley landscape (designated NMV in the “Regional Adaptation” column).


Shallow and stony soils
Soils in many mountainous regions are shallow and stony.
Zoned landscapes
Zoned landscapes can include native plant areas such as a rock garden, home orchards and vegetable gardens, as well as a more traditional landscape with roses and lawn.
Evergreen forests
Northern valley native landscapes are often dominated by evergreen forests.
Table 1. Trees suitable for use in Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude native plant landscapes.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Regional
Adaptation1
Landscape Uses and Notes Avail2
Deciduous
Acer glabrum
Rocky Mountain Maple
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Excellent small (to 25 ft), multitrunked tree for specimen, accent, and yellow fall color. New stems and seeds are often red. Occ
Acer grandidentatum
Bigtooth Maple
MHD
HEM
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding small to medium (to 35 ft) tree for shade, specimen, accent, and brilliant red fall color. A few northern-selected varieties are available. Occ
Alnus tenuifolia
Mountain Alder
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Small (to 25 ft), multitrunked tree with dark brown bark and summer catkins. Gold fall color. Useful in naturalized areas along streams and seeps. Rare
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Excellent medium-sized, multitrunked tree for shade, fall color, and winter bark interest. Occ
Betula papyrifera
Paper Birch
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. An outstanding medium-sized (to 60 ft) tree for shade or specimen. White feathering bark creates four-season interest. Com
Celtis reticulata
Netleaf Hackberry
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Nice small (to 15 ft) shade tree for dry sites. Provides balance in a dry landscape. Occ
Crataegus douglasii
Douglas Hawthorn
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Excellent small (to 25 ft), multistemmed tree or large shrub for accent, barriers, and attracting wildlife. Produces white spring flowers, black summer berries, and bright red fall leaves. Occ
Crataegus succulenta
Fleshy Hawthorn
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Attractive small (to 15 ft) tree or large shrub for accent, barriers, riparian planting, and attracting wildlife. Produces white or pink flowers in late spring, large red fruit in late summer, and red leaves in fall. Occ
Populus angustifolia
Narrowleaf Cottonwood
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Good large (to 60 ft) shade tree for planting near water features or in areas with a high water table. Provides fair yellow fall color. Occ
Populus fremontii
Fremont Cottonwood
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Good large (to 60 ft) shade tree for naturalized areas near water features or in areas with a high water table. Occ
Populus tremuloides
Quaking Aspen
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 40 ft) shade tree for planting in naturalized areas. Provides year-round interest with white bark, attractive leaves, and bright yellow fall color. Tendency to sucker lessens value as a specimen tree. Com
Populus trichocarpa
Black Cottonwood
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Good large (to 60 ft) shade tree for planting near water features or in areas with a high water table. Develops fair yellow fall color. Occ
Prunus americana
American Wild Plum
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Nice multistemmed small (to 15 ft) tree for border or barrier. Thorny. Produces attractive white flowers in spring and red fruit in summer. Attracts wildlife. Occ
Prunus virginiana
cv. ‘Shubert’ ‘Shubert’ Chokecherry
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Small to medium (to 30 ft), clump-forming tree for borders and naturalized areas. Produces green leaves that age to purple, clusters of white spring flowers, and purple summer fruit. Suckers badly. Does well in shade. Com
Quercus gambelii
Gambel Oak
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Excellent small (to 25 ft) tree for shade, balance or accent. Attractive to wildlife and has fair to good fall color. Occ
Sorbus scopulina
Rocky Mountain Ash
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Excellent small (to 15 ft) tree or large shrub for accent or specimen planting. Large clusters of white flowers give way to bright orange late summer berries, followed by bright yellow fall color. Occ
Evergreen
Abies concolor
White Fir
MHD
HEM
NMV
More drought tolerant than other firs. Outstanding medium to large (to 50 ft), pyramidal evergreen tree for accent or specimen plantings. Needles are soft and bluish in color. Com
Abies grandis
Grand Fir
NMV Not drought tolerant. Extremely large fir (to 200 ft) that can be used on large properties in naturalized plantings or as a specimen. In time becomes a stately tree. Occ
Abies lasiocarpa
Subalpine Fir
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Excellent large (to 100 ft) evergreen for specimen, accent, or windbreak. Very narrow, almost columnar shape makes it suitable for moderate-sized yards. Occ
Juniperus scopulorum
Rocky Mountain Juniper
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 40 ft) evergreen tree for dry places. Attractive grayish green foliage. Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) is also attractive and may be more drought tolerant. Com
Larix occidentalis
Western Larch Tamarack
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. An unusual large (to 90 ft) conifer that loses its needles in fall after a sparkling display of yellow color. Fine branching gives nice form. Best placed among other evergreens where its “dead” winter appearance does not detract. Occ
Picea engelmannii
Engelmann Spruce
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good large (to 90 ft) evergreen tree for accent or windbreak. Withstands wind better than most conifers. Long, drooping side branches add interest. Rare
Picea pungens
Colorado Spruce
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Good large (to 70 ft) evergreen tree for screening, accent, specimen plantings, and windbreaks. Needs adequate space to grow unfettered. Both blue and green forms are available. Com
Pinus aristata
Bristlecone Pine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding small to medium (to 40 ft) tree for use as a specimen. Contorted form and extremely slow growth make it suitable for a central place in relatively dry landscapes of nearly any size. Occ
Pinus contorta var. latifolia
Lodgepole Pine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant once established. Good slender (to 70 ft) pine for naturalized areas. High branching and a loose, open canopy create dappled shade. Occ
Pinus flexilis
Limber Pine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Excellent medium-sized (to 50 ft) tree for accent, windbreaks, or specimen planting. The crown remains dense, and the needles are blue green and soft. Com
Pinus monophylla
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Does not grow well above 5,000 ft. Singleleaf pinyon is best for Idaho. Outstanding small (to 25 ft) evergreen tree for accent or specimen use. Rare
Pinus monticola
Western White Pine
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Good large (over 100 ft) tree for naturalizing. Useful only on large properties. Idaho state tree. Occ
Pinus ponderosa
Ponderosa Pine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good large (over 100 ft) evergreen tree for large, naturalized areas. Stately form and attractive bark add to interest. Occ
Pinus strobiformis
Southwestern White Pine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant, more so than most pines. Similar in many ways to Limber Pine. Grows to moderate size (50 ft) and has dense form, dark green needles, soft texture, and very large ornamental cones. Occ
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas Fir
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good large (over 100 ft) evergreen tree for large naturalized areas. Prefers some shade when small and can be planted among other trees. Intermountain forms are smaller and more drought tolerant than coastal forms. Com
Thuja plicata
Western Redcedar
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Outstanding large (over 100 ft) evergreen for moist, naturalized areas. Especially effective in group plantings on large properties in the northern regions of Idaho. Occ
Tsuga heterophylla
Western Hemlock
NMV Not drought tolerant. Outstanding large (over 100 ft) tree for naturalizing and accent. Especially effective grouped or planted in shade. Occ
1Regional Adaptation and Landscape Use:
DHD = Dry High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe areas, no irrigation
MHD=Modified High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe, supplemental irrigation
HEM = High-Elevation Mountain landscape, montane and mountain brush, no irrigation
NMV = Northern Mountain/Valley landscape, montane coniferous forest, no irrigation
2Availability in the Nursery Trade:
Com = Commonly available from both traditional and specialty nurseries
Occ = Occasionally available, usually from nurseries specializing in native plants
Rare = Uncommon in the nursery trade; may require careful search or starting from seed
Native conifers
Native conifers make beautiful native landscape specimens. Conifers are seen here mixed with western larch (tamarack) showing their yellow fall color.
Native willows
Native willows add a nice accent, with their yellow leaves.
Table 2. Shrubs and vines suitable for use in Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude native plant landscapes.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Regional
Adaptation1
Landscape Uses and Notes Avail2
Deciduous
Amelanchier alnifolia
Amelanchier utahensis
Serviceberry
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant, Utah Serviceberry more drought tolerant. Outstanding tall (to 20 ft) shrub for background, accent, and attracting wildlife. White flowers appear in early spring, purple fruit in late summer, with added attraction of dark red fall color. Variety ‘Regent’ is compact. Com
Atriplex canescens
Fourwing Saltbush
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for dry perimeters or screens. Leaves are gray and the fringed fruits are attractive in early summer. Tolerates salty soils and heat. A. gardneri is a dwarf type. Rare
Atriplex confertifolia
Shadscale
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. Good small (to 2 ft) shrub for accent or naturalized plantings in difficult dry sites. Dry papery fruits are often pink to bright red in early summer. Rare
Ceanothus sanguineus
Redstem Ceanothus
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding medium-sized (to 10 ft) shrub for specimen, accent, borders, and understory. Large clusters of flowers appear in spring and red stems add summer interest. Occ
Cercocarpus montanus
Birchleaf Mtn. Mahogany
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. A deciduous form of mahogany. A tall (to 12 ft) shrub that can be pruned to be a small tree. Makes a good accent or specimen plant in the dry garden. Leaves are shiny and dark green. Rare
Chamaebatiaria millefolium
Desert Fernbush
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. Excellent medium-sized (to 4 ft) shrub for accent, specimen, or hedging. Leaves are fern-like. Produces large clusters of white flowers in late spring; coppery seed plumes add late summer interest. Occ
Clematis spp.
Clematis, Vine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Vining clematis is good for ground cover or trellis specimen. Appropriate species include C. ligustifolia (long vines, white flowers) and C. columbiana (short vines, blue flowers). Occ
Cornus sericea
Red Twig Dogwood
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant but does best with consistent moisture. Outstanding tall (to 10 ft) shrub for hedges, specimen, or accent. Dark red stems add winter interest after the fall color declines. Com
Eriogonum corymbosum
Lacy Buckwheat
DHD
MHD
Also called “crispleaf buckwheat.” Very drought tolerant. Good small (to 2 ft) shrub for dry area accent or specimen planting. Spherical wiry stems provide four-season interest. Flowers are white or pink and appear in late fall. Occ
Fallugia paradoxa
Apache Plume
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Outstanding medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for specimen use. White spring flowers give way to plumy pink seed heads that hang on all summer. Occ
Holodiscus dumosus
Mountain Spray
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Good tall (to 10 ft) shrub for accent and massed planting. Plumy flower and seed clusters provide summer interest. Prefers some shade. Rare
Jamesia americana
Waxflower
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 5 ft) shrub for specimen, border, or rock gardens. Fragrant white flowers appear in late spring. Brilliant orange fall color. Flaking bark adds winter interest. Withstands some shade. Occ
Lonicera ciliosa
Orange Honeysuckle
NMV Not drought tolerant. A large (to 30 ft long) vine for use on trellises and fences. Bright orange trumpet flowers appear in late spring. Occ
Lonicera involucrata
Twinberry
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Prefers shade and neutral or acid soil. Nice medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for mass planting, accent. Small yellow trumpet flowers give way to paired black berries. Com
Lonicera utahensis
Utah Honeysuckle
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for accent and understory. Yellow flowers are followed by red berries. Prefers acid soil. Rare
Peraphyllum ramosissimum
Squaw Apple
MHD
HEM
NMV
Drought tolerant. Excellent small to medium (to 5 ft) shrub for naturalized areas, borders, accent, and rock gardens. Produces numerous white flowers in spring and hip-like fruits in late summer. Rare
Philadelphus lewisii
Philadelphus microphyllus
Syringa
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding medium to tall (to 15 ft) shrub for mass planting, accent, or specimen. Large white flowers appear in late spring and are very fragrant. State flower of Idaho. Occ
Physocarpus malvaceus
Ninebark
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding medium-sized (to 5 ft) shrub for accent, hedges, and understory. Clusters of white flowers appear in late spring. Red to light rose fall color. Shade tolerant. Tends to spread. Com
Potentilla fruticosa
Cinquefoil (shrubby)
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding small to medium (to 5 ft) flowering shrub for accents and borders. Provides summer-long color with white, yellow or pink flowers. Com
Prunus besseyi
Western Sand Cherry
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for mass planting, hedges, background, and windbreaks. Small white flowers appear in early spring, followed by edible purple fruit. Com
Prunus virginiana
Chokecherry
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Good tall (to 20 ft) shrub for borders, naturalized areas. Produces large clusters of white flowers in late spring and edible purple berries in summer. Tends to sucker. Withstands shade. Com
Rhamnus purshiana
Cascara Buckthorn
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Good tall (to 20 ft) shrub or small tree for borders, background, and understory. Dark green leaves turn orange, red, or purple in the fall. Rare
Rhus glabra
Smooth Sumac
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought tolerant. Good medium-sized shrub for accent, borders, bank stabilization, or dry ground cover. Outstanding red fall color. Rhus aromatica is a smaller species, Rhus typhina much taller. Com
Rhus trilobata
Oakleaf Sumac
DHD
MHD
HEM
Also called Squawbush. Extremely drought tolerant. Excellent medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for accent borders or background in the dry garden. Outstanding red fall color. Occ
Ribes aureum
Golden Currant
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding small to medium (to 5 ft) shrub for accent or hedging. Numerous yellow flowers appear in early summer and are followed by edible yellow-orange berries. Attractive orange-yellow fall color. Occ
Ribes sanguineum
Red Flowering Currant
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding medium-sized (to 5 ft) shrub for mass planting, accent, and hedges. Showy red flowers in early summer are followed by edible red berries. Occ
Rosa nutkana
Rosa woodsii
Wild Rose
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Good small shrubs (to 5 ft) for naturalized areas. Many forms are available, some small with few thorns. All produce beautiful, single pink flowers in spring and large red hips that persist into winter. Occ
Salix spp.
Willows, Dwarf
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Many dwarf species, good for small specimen, accent, and rock gardens in moist locations. Variety exists in terms of size, form, leaf color, and catkin appearance. Dwarf species include Salix brachycarpa, S. caprea, S. eleagnos, S. grahamii, S. purpurea, S. repens, and S. wolfii. Occ
Sambucus caerulea
Blue Elderberry
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Excellent tall (to 15 ft) shrub for accent, wildlife attraction, and naturalized areas. Produces huge clusters of white summer flowers and blue fall edible berries. Withstands shade. Com
Shepherdia argentea
Shepherdia canadensis
Buffaloberry
MHD
HEM
Moderately drought tolerant. Good tall (to 15 ft) shrub for barriers, windbreaks, and naturalized areas. Produces showy red berries in summer. Typically grows large thorns. Com
Sorbus scopulina
Mountain Ash
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. A nice large shrub (to 20 ft) or small tree for borders, background, mass planting, accent, or specimen. Attractions include large clusters of white summer flowers plus orange berries and bright yellow leaves in fall. Occ
Spiraea betulifolia
Birchleaf Spirea
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. One of the most beautiful native shrubs. Small (to 3 ft) in stature and useful for borders, beds, specimen, and accent. Topped by large sprays of white flowers in early summer. Red fall leaf color. Tolerates shade. Occ
Spiraea douglasii
Douglas Spirea
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Attractive medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for accent, border, bed, or specimen in a moist location. Produces tall spikes of dark pink flowers throughout the summer. Can spread to form a thicket. Occ
Symphoricarpos alba
Symphoricarpos oreophilus
Snowberry
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately to highly drought tolerant. Excellent medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub for accent, mass planting, naturalizing, or stabilizing banks. Small pink pendulous flowers grow on the ends of stems and result in white or pinkish berries. S. alba and S. rotundifolia are more drought tolerant than S. oreophilus. Occ
Vaccinium membranaceum
Huckleberry
NMV Not drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 8 ft) shrub for accent, mass planting, or naturalizing. Produces delicious edible berries in summer. Needs moist, acid soil. Rare
Evergreen
Arctostaphylos patula
Greenleaf Manzanita
MHD
HEM
Moderately drought tolerant. Beautiful small (to 3 ft) shrub for accent, mass planting, and rock gardens. Red stems are set off by shiny dark green leaves. Also has interesting bark and contorted branching habit. Rare
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Kinnikinnick (Bearberry)
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding spreading shrub for accent or ground cover in a semishady location. Shiny green leaves are set off by small drooping pink flowers. Com
Artemisia cana
Silver Sagebrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Medium-sized (to 5 ft) sage with strong silver color. Good for mass planting and naturalizing in dry sites. Occ
Artemisia nova
Black Sagebrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Small form of sagebrush that is nearly prostrate (to 12 in). Effective in dry naturalized areas and borders. The name refers to the black stem color. Rare
Artemisia tridentata
Big Sagebrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Can grow to be large (to 10 ft) but is usually smaller. Good desert landscape shrub for naturalized areas. Occ
Ceanothus martinii
Mountain Lilac
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Nice small shrub for accent, ground cover, borders, and formal gardens. Produces large sprays of white flowers in early summer. C. velutinus is similar but taller. Rare
Cercocarpus ledifolius
Mountain Mahogany
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Medium to large (to 15 ft) shrub good for specimen or screening. Can be pruned to be a small tree. Silver-gray bark sets off the dark green leaves. Occ
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus
Ericameria nauseosa
Rabbitbrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Small shrub (to 4 ft) good for specimen, accent, or naturalizing. Foliage may be dark green to silver and is attractive in early summer. Masses of late summer yellow flowers add color to dry areas. Occ
Juniperus communis
Juniperus occidentalis
Juniper
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought hardy. Variable shrubs good for accent, specimen, and ground cover. Dark green to gray-green needles provide year-round beauty. Tolerates some shade. Com
Krascheninnikovia lanata
Winterfat
DHD
MHD
Very drought tolerant. Outstanding as a bed, specimen, or accent plant in the dry garden. The silvery leaves are attractive in the summer and remain on the plant through the winter. The downy white seed stalks add fall and winter interest. Rare
Mahonia fremontii
Utah Holly
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Attractive medium-sized (to 7 ft) shrub for specimen, accent, or barrier. Leaves are light blue and turn purple in winter. Yellow flowers in late spring give way to red fruit that attracts wildlife. Rare
Mahonia nervosa
Mahonia repens
Oregon Grape
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Outstanding low shrub (to 1 ft for low forms and 3 ft for tall forms) for foundation planting, ground cover, beds, borders, and rock gardens. Leaves are shiny and holly-like. Yellow flowers in late spring and dark blue berries add to interest. Tolerates shade. Com
Pachystima myrsinites
Mountain Lover
(Mountain Boxwood)
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. One of the best ground cover (to 1 foot) shrubs for dry shade. Evergreen leaves are shiny and dark, similar in appearance to boxwood. Occ
Purshia mexicana
Cliffrose
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Open-structured, upright, medium-sized (to 6 ft) shrub that can be used in dry areas for accent or hedging. Summer yellow flowers give way to feathery seed plumes. Tolerates poor soils.
Purshia tridentata
Antelope Bitterbrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Good medium-sized (to 4 ft) shrub for accent, hedges, naturalized areas. Produces masses of yellow flowers in early summer. More prostrate than Cliffrose. Occ
Salvia dorii
Salvia pachyphylla
Purple Sage
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. Excellent low (to 3 ft) accent, specimen, or border shrub. Produces a long and spectacular display of blue and purple flowers beginning in early summer. Requires dry conditions. Occ
1Regional Adaptation and Landscape Use:
DHD = Dry High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe areas, no irrigation
MHD = Modified High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe, supplemental irrigation
HEM = High-Elevation Mountain landscape, montane and mountain brush, no irrigation
NMV = Northern Mountain/Valley landscape, montane coniferous forest, no irrigation
2Availability in the Nursery Trade:
Com = Commonly available from both traditional and specialty nurseries
Occ = Occasionally available, usually from nurseries specializing in native plants
Rare = Uncommon in the nursery trade; may require careful search or starting from seed
Rubber rabbitbrush
Rubber rabbitbrush adds fall color to the native desert landscape.
Native ninebark
Native ninebark makes an excellent hedge or accent plant.
Table 3. Perennials suitable for use in Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude native landscapes.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Regional
Adaptation1
Landscape Uses and Notes Avail2
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. 12–24 in tall. Mixes well with other plants in rock gardens, beds, borders, and makes a good ground cover. Native forms have white to pink flowers and long period of bloom in summer. Needs full sun. Can be aggressive. Occ
Aconitum columbianum
Western Monkshood
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. 24–48 in tall. Good background plant for damp meadows, naturalized areas, moist rock gardens. Fairly long period of bloom in mid-to-late summer. Withstands sun or part shade. Com
Agastache spp.
Giant Hyssop
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 24–36 in tall. Good background plants in naturalized areas, beds, and butterfly gardens. Valuable for adding color during late summer and fall. Foliage is fragrant and flowers are pink, red, purple, or blue. The most common local native species is A. urticifolia. Others that may be cold hardy include A. cana, A. rupestris, and A. neomexicana. Needs full sun. Com to Rare
Agave parryi
Agave
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. To 18 in tall. Useful as an isolated accent or specimen plant in dry beds or rock gardens. The large, blue-green fleshy leaves provide year-round interest. Requires full sun. Occ
Anaphalis margaritacea
Pearly Everlasting
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Grows to 18 in tall. Good for rock gardens, naturalized areas. The silver-gray foliage is attractive and the late-summer white flowers are great for cutting and drying. Spreads slowly. Prefers part shade. Com
Antennaria spp.
Pussytoes
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. To 5 in tall. Good for ground cover, edging, and rock gardens. Gray fuzzy foliage is attractive. Blooms white or pink in early summer. Withstands sun or part shade. Occ
Aquilegia spp.
Columbine
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderate drought tolerance. Provides a long period of summer bloom in rock gardens, beds, borders, and woodlands. Species vary in color (white, blue, pink, red) and size (5–24 in). Attractive species include A. coerulea, A. formosa, and A. scopulorum. Remains healthier in part shade. Com
Argemone munita
Prickly Poppy
DHD Extremely drought tolerant. 12–18 in tall. Great accent for hot, dry xeric rock gardens and naturalized locations. The thistle-like plant produces large white flowers over a long period in the heat of summer. Needs full sun. Rare
Aster spp.
Asters
MHD
HEM
NMV
Many species adapted to varied environments. Flower colors are commonly white, pink, and blue. Many are valuable for imparting fall color to beds, borders, and rock gardens. Tall species tend to mix well with other plants. Com to Occ
Balsamorhiza sagittata
Arrowleaf Balsamroot
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought tolerant. 18–24 in tall. Useful for naturalizing and rock gardens. Fuzzy gray arrowhead leaves are followed by summer sunflower-like blooms. Best seeded in a sunny location. Occ
Cactaceae family
Cactus
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. Great for xeriscape borders and rock gardens. Fleshy stems provide consistent interest and varied flowers give temporary early summer beauty. All need full sun. Good species include Coryphantha vivipara and Opuntia polyacantha. Rare
Calochortus eurycarpus
Mariposa lily
MHD
HEM
NMV
Sometimes called Sego Lily. Moderately drought tolerant; needs spring moisture. 6–12 in tall. Good for dry rock gardens, slopes, open naturalized areas with full sun. Can be difficult to establish. Occ
Camassia quamash
Camas Lily
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant but needs spring moisture. Wonderful for mass planting in borders and meadows. Flowers are white or purple and borne on bare stems. Can be difficult to establish. Com
Campanula rotundifolia
Scotch Bluebell
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Shade tolerant. 6–18 in tall. Blue bell-like flowers appear in early to midsummer. Good at high elevations for rock gardens and forest understory. Occ
Castilleja spp.
Indian Paintbrush
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Variable drought tolerance from none to extreme. 6–18 in tall. Beautiful plant for rock gardens and naturalized areas. Flowers usually bright red or yellow. Typically difficult to establish. Among the best species are C. angustifolia, C. chromosa, and C. integra. Occ
Clematis spp.
Clematis, Shrubby
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 12–18 in tall. These are nonvining clematis that are good for the front of borders and rock gardens. Most produce nodding blue flowers in early summer. Good species include C. fremontii and C. hirsutissima. Rare
Delphinium spp.
Larkspur
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. There are many native species, small (to 12 in) to very tall (to 6 ft) with blue or purple summer flowers. The tall species work well as background in beds. Most are adapted to shade. All forms are excellent for naturalized areas. Com
Dodecatheon jeffreyi
Shooting Star
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. 18–24 in tall. Both the foliage and upside-down pink flowers are attractive. Blooms in springtime. Good low-growing plant for moist, partly shady naturalized areas. Occ
Epilobium angustifolium
Fireweed
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Grows to 6 ft tall. Colorful perennial with summer spikes of dark pink flowers. Good as a background plant in tall beds and borders or for naturalizing. Adapted to sun or part shade. Occ
Erigeron spp.
Daisy
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Species vary in adaptation, from wet to very dry. There is also tremendous variation in bloom period, flower color, and growth habit. Many species contribute color to the fall garden. Good for sunny beds, borders, rock gardens, or ground covers. Excellent species include E. eatonii, E. compositus, E. flagellaris, and E. speciosus. Com to Rare
Eriogonum spp.
Buckwheat
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
A large group of species with variable adaptation, mostly to dry sites. Size varies from a few inches to 36 in tall. Some species bloom in spring, others in summer or fall. Outstanding for dry, sunny rock gardens, borders, and naturalized areas. Good species include E. umbellatum, E. caespitosum, E. heracleoides, E. jamesii, and E. corymbosum. Com to Rare
Erysimum capitatum
Western Wallflower
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 12–24 in tall. Bright yellow flowers appear in spring. Good for rock gardens, low beds, and borders. Com
Erythronium grandiflorum
Glacier Lily
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderate drought tolerance. To 12 in tall. Grows from a bulb and blooms as snow recedes. Good for naturalizing, low borders, and rock gardens. Prefers full sun. Occ
Fragaria virginiana
Wild Strawberry
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. Low-growing plant that spreads by stolons and has edible fruit. Grown mostly for the foliage. Good for rock gardens, beds, borders, and light shade understory. Com
Gaillardia aristata
Blanket Flower
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. 18–24 in tall. The sunflower-like flowers are yellow and maroon. Provides all-summer color in dry, sunny beds, borders, rock gardens, and naturalized areas. Many varieties are available. Com
Gentian spp.
Gentian
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Most species grow as very small bog plants with intense blue flowers. Good for wet rock gardens and bog features. Some species have fall bloom. Most prefer full sun. Occ
Geranium viscosissimum
Geranium
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 18–24 in tall. Pink flowers and long bloom period. Good for beds, borders, and woodlands. Prefers light shade. Occ
Geum triflorum
Prairie Smoke
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 6–18 in tall. Spreads slowly via rhizomes. Attractive foliage is complemented by nodding pink flowers and feathery seed heads. Great plant for sunny ground cover, border edges, and rock gardens. Rare
Haplopappus armerioides
Goldenweed
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Grows 6–12 in tall. Summer bloom, flowers are bright yellow daisies. Good for borders, dry naturalized areas. Rare
Helenium hoopesii
Sneezeweed
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. To 4 ft tall. Large yellow flowers appear in fall. Good for tall beds and borders. Prefers full sun. Occ
Heuchera spp.
Heuchera (Coral Bells)
MHD
HEM
NMV
Also called alumroot. Moderately drought tolerant. Long bloom period with tall spikes of white or pink flowers. Good for low borders, edges, and rock gardens. Attractive species include H. rubescens, H. parvifolia, and H. sanguinea. Com
Hymenoxys acaulis
Sundancer
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderate to high drought tolerance. 12–18 in tall. Yellow daisy-like flowers are present all summer long. Good for dry meadows, rock gardens, and natural areas. Needs full sun. Occ
Iliamna rivularis
Mountain Hollyhock
MHD
HEM
NMV
Also called River Mallow. To 5 ft tall. Moderately drought tolerant. Pink flowers like small hollyhocks appear in early summer. Great for backgrounds, tall beds, and borders in sun or light shade. Rare
Ipomopsis aggregata
(also known as Gilia aggregata)
Scarlet Gilia
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 18–24 in tall. Brilliant scarlet flowers in summer. Good for naturalized areas, rock gardens, borders. Grows as a biennial on dry slopes. Com
Iris missouriensis
Rocky Mountain Iris
MHD
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. This wild iris grows to 24 in tall and has pale blue flowers in spring. Good plant for damp beds, water features, and natural bogs. Prefers full sun. Rare
Lewisia rediviva
Bitterroot
MHD
HEM
Moderately drought tolerant. Grows only a few inches tall and produces bright pink flowers. Great low-growing plant for rock gardens and rocky slopes. Needs full sun. Com
Linnaea borealis
Twinflower
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. A creeping ground cover less than 6 in tall. Usually grown for foliage. Produces pink bell-like flowers in early summer. Good small plant for shady understory and boggy beds. Rare
Linum lewisii
Blue Flax
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Grows to 18 in tall. Bright blue flowers add summer color to meadows and rock gardens. Needs full sun. Com
Lobelia cardinalis
Cardinal Flower
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. 18–36 in tall. Brilliant red flowers appear from midsummer into fall. Beautiful flower for moist sites and water gardens. Grows well in partial shade. Occ
Lupinus spp.
Lupine
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Drought tolerance varies by species. Summer flowers come in shades of blue and purple. Great for naturalized areas and transition zones. Needs full sun. Best seeded. Com
Melampodium leucanthum
Blackfoot Daisy
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Mounding perennial to 12 in tall with silver-blue foliage. White daisies produced over a long period from spring to summer. Good plant for dry rock gardens, beds, borders, and naturalizing. Occ
Mertensia campanulata
Mertensia oblongifolia
Bluebell
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 24–36 in tall. Attractive foliage. Spring flowers are blue and bell-like. Good for background, beds, and forest understory. Shade tolerant. Rare
Mertensia ciliata
Broadleaf Bluebell
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Moderately shade tolerant. Excellent tall plant for water features and forest understory. Occ
Mimulus spp.
Monkeyflower
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. Ranges from a few inches to 36 in tall. Flowers come in shades of pink and yellow. Prefers light shade. One of the best water feature plants. Occ
Mirabilis multiflora
Four O’ Clock
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. Broad, spreading plants (to 18 in) produce masses of reddish-pink flowers. Good in the foreground of beds and borders. Occ
Monarda fistulosa
Bee Balm
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. 30–50 in tall. Produces lavender flowers over most of the summer. Tolerates some shade and prefers moist to moderately dry sites. Com
Monardella odoratissima
Mountain Pennyroyal
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Grows to 12 in tall. Fragrant foliage is topped with pink or purple summer flowers. Excellent dry garden plant for edging, low borders, and rock gardens. Needs full sun. Rare
Myosotis sylvatica var. alpestris
Forget-Me-Not
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 6–12 in tall. Spring flowers come in shades of pink and blue. Good for low borders and beds. Withstands shade. Reseeds freely. Occ
Oenothera caespitosa
Evening Primrose
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought tolerant. 6–12 in tall. Summer flowers open white and fade to pink. Great for low borders and rock gardens. Prefers full sun. Occ
Olsynium inflatum
Grass Widows
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. Grows from a bulb to a height of 15 in. White, pink, or blue flowers appear in very early spring. Best used in massed plantings among other low plants. Prefers full sun. Occ
Oxytropis lambertii
Oxytropis sericea
Locoweed
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Grows from 6–12 in. Summer flowers are white or purple. Good small plant for very dry low edges or rock gardens. Requires full sun. Occ
Penstemon spp.
Penstemon
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Varies widely in adaptation. Plants come in a full range of sizes and flower colors. Penstemons are exceptional for adding spring and summer color to backgrounds, borders, rock gardens, edges, and natural areas. Com to Rare
Petrophytum caespitosum
Tufted Rock Mat
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Spreading plant that grows only a few inches tall and form fits itself to rocks and walls. White flower candles emerge from the foliage in late summer. Attractive in rock gardens and over ledges. Requires full sun. Rare
Phacelia sericea
Silky Phacelia
MHD
HEM
NMV
Drought tolerant. 12–18 in tall. One of the most beautiful mountain wildflowers. Produces tall spikes of dark blue or purple flowers. Good plant for dry rock gardens, beds, or borders. Rare
Phlox spp.
Phlox
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Species vary and most are at least moderately drought tolerant. Spring flowers come in shades of pink and white. Great plants for low beds, borders, edges, and rock gardens. Com
Polemonium pulcherrimum
Jacob’s Ladder
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. 8–12 in tall. Sky blue spring flowers cover ferny, odorous foliage. Great for shady beds, borders, and rock gardens. Occ
Potentilla spp.
Cinquefoil
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Many species with varied flower color (white, yellow, red), bloom time, and plant size. Most have interesting and attractive foliage. Good for most uses in short perennial beds. Com to Rare
Pulsatilla patens
Pasque Flower
MHD
HEM
NMV
Drought tolerant. Small plants to 9 in tall. Large purple flowers appear in early spring before the ferny foliage. Good for mixing with native grasses in naturalized areas. Com
Smilacina racemosa
False Solomon’s Seal
MHD
HEM
NMV
Somewhat drought tolerant. 18–36 in tall. Foliage is attractive. Flowers are white and inconspicuous. Makes an excellent understory plant in dry shade or moist sites. Occ
Sphaeralcea spp.
Globemallow
DHD
MHD
Extremely drought tolerant. 24–30 in tall. Bright orange flowers over a long bloom period. Good for dry borders, slopes, and naturalized areas. Occ
Thlaspi montanum
Candytuft, Wild
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 6–12 in tall. Flowers are white and add early spring beauty in sun or shade. Rare
Townsendia spp.
Townsendia
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. Less than 6 in tall. Flowers appear as large daisies in many colors growing over limited foliage. Small plants suitable for dry rock gardens and edging short beds. Occ
Trillium ovatum
Trillium
HEM
NMV
Not drought tolerant. 6–18 in tall. White or pink flowers. Very early spring bloom. Grows from a bulb in deep shade. Good for understory or shady borders in moist sites. Occ
Yucca harrimaniae
Yucca
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Flower spikes to 4 ft tall. Blooms white in summer. Good specimen for dry rock gardens and open beds. Some related species are more tolerant of moist conditions. Occ
Zauschneria garrettii
Fire Chalice
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 12–18 in tall. Bright red flowers. Long season of bloom. One of the exceptional native plants that is great for beds, borders, and rock gardens. Occ
1Regional Adaptation and Landscape Use:
DHD = Dry High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe areas, no irrigation
MHD = Modified High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe, supplemental irrigation
HEM = High-Elevation Mountain landscape, montane and mountain brush, no irrigation
NMV = Northern Mountain/Valley landscape, montane coniferous forest, no irrigation
2Availability in the Nursery Trade:
Com = Commonly available from both traditional and specialty nurseries
Occ = Occasionally available, usually from nurseries specializing in native plants
Rare = Uncommon in the nursery trade; may require careful search or starting from seed
Native yarrow
Native yarrow is a unique, long-flowering plant that comes in colors of pink and white.
Penstemons
Penstemons are some of Idaho’s most beautiful native wildflowers.
Table 4. Grasses suitable for use in Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude native plant landscapes.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Regional
Adaptation1
Landscape Uses and Notes Avail2
Achnatherum hymenoides
Indian Rice Grass
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. 12–18 in tall. Seed panicles are very airy and reflect light. Great for borders, rock gardens, slopes, and natural areas. Occ
Bouteloua gracilis
Blue Grama
MHD
NMV
Moderately drought hardy. 12–18 in tall. Red seed heads interestingly horizontal. Good small grass for low-care turf, erosion control, naturalized areas. Needs warm summer temperatures to be at its best. Can be mowed. Com
Deschampsia caespitosa
Tufted hairgrass
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 18–48 in tall depending on variety. Numerous glossy seed spikes emerge in midseason. Great for background, specimen, understory accent, rock gardens, or beds and borders. Shade tolerant. Com
Festuca spp.
Fescue
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. Varies in size, most 6–18 in. Most have attractive leaves of green or blue that complement seed spikes. Excellent small grass for specimen, ground cover, borders, natural areas, and low-care turf. Good species include F. idahoensis, F. subulata, and F. arizonica. Com
Koeleria macrantha
Prairie Junegrass
MHD
HEM
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 12–24 in tall. Narrow, green leaves are topped in early spring by silvery seed heads. Good small grass for meadow areas, low-care turf. Can be mowed. Occ
Leymus cinereus
Great Basin Wildrye
DHD
MHD
HEM
Extremely drought tolerant. 5–7 ft tall. Light green or gray leaves give rise to narrow, tall seed spikes. Good tall grass for screening, background, or naturalizing a tall grass meadow. Remains upright through winter. Occ
Panicum virgatum
Switchgrass
MHD
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 4–6 ft tall. Attractive tall grass with open, airy reddish or purplish seed panicles. Good for specimen, background, massed planting, or erosion control. Upright types provide winter interest. Many varieties available of which ‘Dallas Blues’ is one of the best. Com
Poa fendleriana
Mutton Bluegrass
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought tolerant. 12–24 in tall. Narrow light green leaves topped by short, spiky seed heads. Great small grass for accent, rock gardens, borders, and natural areas. Occ
Poa secunda
Big Bluegrass
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Extremely drought tolerant. 20–30 in tall. Seed heads appear early and stay attractive all summer. Excellent grass for naturalized areas, rock gardens, and borders. Occ
Schizachyrium scoparium
Little Bluestem
DHD
MHD
HEM
Very drought tolerant. 24–36 in tall. Blue-green leaves fade to pinkish orange in fall. Good grass for fringe areas, transition zones, beds and borders, and erosion control. Com
Sorghastrum nutans
Indian Grass
MHD
NMV
Moderately drought tolerant. 5–6 ft tall. From a low leaf mat emerge tall, attractively brown seed spikes. Good tall grass for background, borders, or specimen. Very attractive through the winter. Com
Sporobolus airoides
Alkali Sacaton
DHD
MHD
Very drought tolerant. 30–40 in tall. Late-developing, attractive, airy panicles over rather plain leaf blades. Retains interest through winter. Good for borders, specimen, and erosion control. S. wrightii is a larger version that is less cold hardy. Occ
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Sand Dropseed
DHD
MHD
HEM
NMV
Very drought tolerant. 30–40 in tall. Upright grass with seed heads that remain embedded in the sheath. Good for natural areas, erosion control, and slopes. Occ
1Regional Adaptation and Landscape Use:
DHD = Dry High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe areas, no irrigation
MHD = Modified High-Desert landscape, sagebrush steppe, supplemental irrigation
HEM = High-Elevation Mountain landscape, montane and mountain brush, no irrigation
NMV = Northern Mountain/Valley landscape, montane coniferous forest, no irrigation
2Availability in the Nursery Trade:
Com = Commonly available from both traditional and specialty nurseries
Occ = Occasionally available, usually from nurseries specializing in native plants
Rare = Uncommon in the nursery trade; may require careful search or starting from seed
Tufted hairgrass
Tufted hairgrass is great for background, specimen, understory accent, rock gardens, or beds and borders.
Idaho fescue
Fescues, including Idaho fescue, make great small specimen plants.

Finding Sources of Native Plants

Identifying native plant species for local climates may take a little homework, but it is not especially difficult. Finding sources from which to purchase those plants is often more complicated. Demand for native plants is continually growing, but supply is erratic because many native plant species require specialized propagation procedures or may grow too slowly to be marketable within a single season, making them less profitable in nursery production. However, with a little creativity, you can still find sources of most desirable plants. It should be noted that plants should never be dug from the wild. It is appropriate to gather seeds in the fall, but it is never appropriate to remove native plants from their natural habitat.

If potted stock is not available, you can find and purchase seeds of most native plants. When that fails, you can collect your own seeds of many species. Establishment from seed is more complex than from nursery stock. Some seeds may require special treatment or handling procedures, and others may not survive to the transplant stage without good greenhouse facilities. As an alternative, try contracting with a greenhouse operator to produce finished plants. Producing your own plants can be extremely rewarding and will vastly expand the palette of plants available for your landscape.

The following is a list of nurseries and companies that commonly sell native plant materials and/or seed that are adapted to Idaho’s short-season, high-altitude regions and climates.

Note: These nurseries are included for your convenience and information. No endorsement of these nurseries is intended nor is criticism implied of similar nurseries not mentioned.

Native Plant Materials

In-State

Draggin’ Wing High Desert Nursery
5300 Stinger Drive
Boise, ID 83703
Ph: 208-345-4199
Email: see https://waterthriftyplants.com/locationcontact/
Web: waterthriftyplants.com

Paradise Gardens Rare Plant Nursery
1731 Black Mountain Rd
Bonners Ferry, ID 83805
Email: wildwood@inbox.com or see http://www.rareplantnursery.net/contact.html
Web: www.rareplantnursery.net

Prairie Bloom Nursery
5602 State Route 270
Pullman, WA 99163-8708
(on the border of Idaho)
Ph: 509-332-4425

Trail Creek Nursery
7095 S. Highway 33
Victor, ID 83455
Ph: 208-787-2470
Email: https://trailcreeknursery.com/about-trail-creek-nursery/ or see text option on home page
Web: trailcreeknursery.com

Twin Peaks Nursery
51 East Lake Fork Road
McCall, ID 83638
Ph: 208-634-3062
Web: twinpeaksnursery.com

Wildlife Habitat Nursery
1025 E. Hatter Creek Road
Princeton, ID 83857
Ph: 208-875-2500
Email: wild@potlatch.com
Web: http://www.whn-online.com/

Regional

Champoeg Nursery
9661 Yergen Road NE
Aurora, OR 97002
Ph: 503-678-4348
Email: info@champoegnursery.com
Web: champoegnursery.com

Derby Canyon Natives
9750 Derby Canyon Road
Peshastin, WA 98847
Ph: 509-548-9404
Email: see https://derbycanyonnatives.com/contact-us/
Web: derbycanyonnatives.com

Desert Jewels Nursery
9809 East Upriver Drive
Spokane, WA 99206
Ph: 509-893-3771
Email: info@desertjewelsnursery.com
Web: www.desertjewelsnursery.com

Flagstaff Native Plant & Seed (online-only business)
Ph: 928-773-9406
Email: info@nativeplantandseed.com
Web: nativeplantandseed.com

Forestfarm at Pacifica (online-only business)
14643 Watergap Rd.
Williams, OR 97544
Ph: 541-846-7269
Email: see https://www.forestfarm.com/contacts
Web: www.forestfarm.com

Great Basin Natives
75 West 300 South Street
Fillmore, UT 84631
Ph: 435-795-2236

High Country Gardens
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Ph: 800-925-9387
Email: see https://www.highcountrygardens.com/contact-us
Web: www.highcountrygardens.com

Mt. Tahoma Nursery
28111 112th Ave E
Graham, WA 98338
Ph: 253-847-9827
Email: rlupp@aol.com
Web: rhodygarden.org/mt-tahoma-nursery-2/

Plants of the Southwest (Main Location of four)
3095 Agua Fria Street
Santa Fe, NM 87507
Ph: 505-438-8888
Email: plantsofthesouthwest@gmail.com
Web: plantsofthesouthwest.com

Plants of the Wild
PO Box 866
Tekoa, WA 99033
Ph: 509-284-2848
Email: kathy@plantsofthewild.com
Web: www.plantsofthewild.com

Progressive Plants
10252 South Bacchus Hwy
Copperton, UT 84006
Ph: 801-565-7333
Email: shaina.m@progressiveplants.com (online sales)
Web: www.progressiveplants.com

Wildland Gardens
370 East 600 North
Joseph, UT 84739
Ph: 801-750-7115
Email: wildlandgardens2018@gmail.com
Web: https://www.facebook.com/WildlandGardens.org/

Willard Bay Gardens
7095 US-89
Willard, UT 84340
Ph: 435-723-1834
Email: plants@willardbaygardens.com
Web: www.willardbaygardens.com

Sources of Seed

In-State

Native Roots, LLC
2475 E 3600 N
Twin Falls, ID 83301
Ph: 208-944-2717
Web: https://www.native-roots.net/

Sun Mountain Natives Seed Company
1406 East F Street
Moscow, ID 83843
Ph: 208-883-7611
Web: www.sunmountainnatives.com

Thorn Creek Native Seed Farm
1461 Thorn Creek Road
Genesee, ID 83832
Ph: 208-596-9122
Web: www.nativeseedfarm.com

Regional

Alplains Seed Catalog
PO Box 489
Kiowa, CO 80117-0489
Ph: 303-621-2864
Email: alandean7@msn.com
Web: www.alplains.com

Comstock Seed
917 Hwy 88
Gardnerville, NV 89460
Ph: 775-265-0090
Email: sales@comstockseed.com
Web: www.comstockseed.com

Flagstaff Native Plant & Seed (online-only business)
Ph: 928-773-9406
Email: info@nativeplantandseed.com
Web: nativeplantandseed.com

Granite Seed and Erosion Control
1697 West 2100 North
Lehi, UT 84043
Ph: 801-768-4422
Email: see https://graniteseed.com/contact-us/
Web: graniteseed.com

Plants of the Southwest (Main Location of four)
3095 Agua Fria Street
Santa Fe, NM 87507
Ph: 505-438-8888
Email: plantsofthesouthwest@gmail.com
Web: plantsofthesouthwest.com

Seeds Trust
999 Vallejo Street
Denver, CO 80204
Ph: 720-335-3436
Web: https://www.seedstrust.com

Western Native Seed
PO Box 188
Coaldale, CO 81222
Ph: 719-942-3935
Email: info@westernnativeseed.com
Web: www.westernnativeseed.com

Wind River Seed
3075 Lane 51 1/2
Manderson, WY 82432
Ph: 307-568-3361
Email: lisa@windriverseed.com
Web: www.windriverseed.com


About the Authors

Stephen L. Love—Community Horticulture Specialist, Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho Aberdeen Research and Extension Center

Kathy Noble—Landscape Architect, Hailey, Idaho

JoAnn Robbins—Agricultural Extension Educator, University of Idaho District III Extension

Bob Wilson—Former County Educator and Horticulturist, Bonner County, Sandpoint, Idaho

Tony McCammon—Agricultural Extension Educator, University of Idaho District II Extension

Photo Credits

All photos by Steve Love, except for the photo of rubber rabbitbrush (Monaquita Love).


Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Barbara Petty, Director of University of Idaho Extension, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844. The University of Idaho has a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, age, disability or status as a Vietnam-era veteran.

University of Idaho Extension

 

Physical Address:
E. J. Iddings Agricultural Science Laboratory, Room 10
606 S Rayburn St

Mailing Address:
875 Perimeter Drive MS 2332
Moscow, ID 83844-2332

Phone: 208-885-7982

Fax: 208-885-9046

Email: calspubs@uidaho.edu

Location

Barbara Petty

Email: extdir@uidaho.edu