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RES 199

Idaho Agriculture Global Exports, 2018

Xiaoxue Du, R. Garth Taylor, Norm Ruhoff

Idaho Exports

Idaho Agriculture Global Exports, 20181

In 2017, Idaho’s foreign exports totaled almost $3.9 billion. More than half of the exports comprised electric and industrial products. The second-largest category was food and agricultural products, which contributed 22% of Idaho’s total exports (Figure 1).

Growth in US and Idaho agriculture is not tied to growth in US food consumption. An increase in the global population and food consumption has been the stimulus. Indeed, both US population growth (326 million in 2017, only 4% of the world’s population) and per capita food consumption are leveling or declining, while both global population and per capita food consumption are on the increase. In 2017 the world’s population topped out at 7.6 billion, with United Nations’ experts expecting that figure to reach 11.2 billion by 2100 (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division). With global income on the increase, diets once based on two skimpy daily meals should shift to more substantial ones that emphasize animal protein, thus increasing the demand for feed grains and meat. Because it is the largest exporter of food and agricultural products in the world, the United States is poised to meet the demand, as should Idaho. In 2017, approximately 28% of Idaho annual farm cash receipts involved exports, with the percentage share totaling no less than 25% between 2010 and 2017 (Figure 2). Thus to understand the health of Idaho agriculture, it is critical to understand exports.

Idaho farm gate cash receipts climbed steadily from $5.94 billion in 2010 to a high of $8.75 billion in 2014 before steadily decreasing to $7.2 billion by 2017. During that same period, the value of Idaho agricultural exports increased from $1.49 billion in 2010 to $2.29 billion in 2013 (Figure 2) before weathering a two-year decrease in 2014–15; it then rebounded over the next two years, increasing to $1.99 billion in 2017. Even though export percentage varies in a narrow band of 25%–28%, changes in exports do not follow changes in cash receipts. Different forces affect the two.


Total exports by categories
Figure 1. Idaho’s total exports by categories.2
Idaho farm gate cash receipts
Figure 2. Idaho farm gate cash receipts and agricultural exports.

Idaho Agricultural Exports by Category

  • Idaho’s 2017 agricultural exports totaled nearly $2 billion. Over two-thirds of total agricultural exports came from plant products exports and the remaining one-third from animal products (USDA, Economic Research Service [ERS], State Export Data).
  • Idaho’s primary categories of agricultural exports share in 2017 were dairy products, 18%; processed vegetables, 15%; wheat, 15%; beef and beef products, 9%; and fresh vegetables, 8% (Figure 3).
  • Compared with 2016, the total value of Idaho agricultural exports increased by 6% in 2017, given the increase in exports in the primary categories. Dairy exports increased by 11%, from $321 to $356 million. In 2017, processed vegetable exports equaled the value of wheat exports. Plant product exports outnumbered animal products exports by more than two to one (Table 1).
Exports share
Figure 3. Idaho’s agricultural exports share, 2017.
Table 1. Idaho agricultural exports value in 2017 versus 2016.
Commodity Exports Value ($ Million) % Change
2016 2017 17/16
Dairy products 321 356 11%
Vegetables, processed1 277 296 7%
Wheat 269 296 10%
Beef and veal 171 179 5%
Vegetables, fresh2 143 158 10%
Total plant products 1,278 1,348 5%
Total animal products 594 645 9%
Total agricultural exports 1,872 1,993 6%
1“Vegetables, processed” include Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) - Vegetables, prepared or preserved (prep. or pres.) + Vegetables, frozen + Vegetables, dried/dehydrated + Dried beans + Dried peas + Dried lentils + Vegetable juices + Dried chickpeas + Olives, prep. or pres.
2“Vegetables, fresh” include FAS - Vegetables except for potato + Potato.
  • In 2017, Idaho ranked fourth among US states in the value of dairy products exported (USDA/ERS, State Export Data, U.S. Agricultural Exports, Commodity detail by state [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017). Based on their total agricultural export value in 2000, Idaho’s dairy products exports grew rapidly after 2004, becoming the primary leading category of Idaho agricultural exports (Figures 4 and 5).
  • In 2017, Idaho also ranked fourth in the nation in exports of both processed vegetables and fresh vegetables (USDA/ERS, State Export Data, U.S. Agricultural Exports, Commodity detail by state [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017). Based on 2017 US Census Bureau data for Idaho exports value by commodity, fresh potato exports accounted for 60% of fresh vegetable exports, with processed potato exports accounting for 42% of processed vegetable exports. Therefore, the total Idaho potato exports value accounted for 11% of total Idaho agricultural exports.
  • In 2017, Idaho ranked sixth in wheat exports among US states (USDA/ERS, State Export Data, U.S. Agricultural Exports, Commodity detail by state [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017). Wheat was Idaho’s leading commodity export for more than ten years until 2014, when dairy products exports surpassed it.

Categories of exports
Figure 4. Idaho’s primary categories of agricultural exports.
Export growth
Figure 5. Growth of Idaho’s primary agricultural exports categories (based on the export value in 2000).

Top Destinations of Idaho Agricultural Exports, 2017

  • The number one market for US agricultural exports in 2017 was Canada, followed by China, Mexico, Japan, the European Union, and South Korea (Figure 6).
  • The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries of Canada and Mexico continue to be Idaho’s top agricultural export trading partners. Roughly 46% of the total value of Idaho’s agricultural exports is destined for Canada and Mexico (Figure 7).
  • Asian countries constitute the second-largest group of Idaho’s agricultural export destination. China, South Korea, and Japan combined import about 20% of Idaho’s agricultural products (Figure 7).

Top exports
Figure 6. Top markets for US agricultural exports, 2017.
Top destinations
Figure 7. Idaho top destinations of agricultural exports, 2017.

Value of Exports Versus Value of Production for Leading Commodities

  • By the share of Idaho agricultural exports by commodity in 2017, the top three were dairy products, 18%; wheat, 15%; and potatoes, 11% (both fresh and processed).

Dairy Products

  • In 2017, Idaho ranked fourth in US milk production and third in US cheese production (Tables 2 and 3).
Table 2. Top 5 US states in milk production, 2017.
Production (LB Million) % Share
California 39.8 18%
Wisconsin 30.3 14%
New York 14.9 7%
IDAHO 14.6 7%
Texas 12.1 6%
US Total 215.5 100%
Table 3. Top 5 US states in cheese production, 2017.
Production (LB Million) % Share
Wisconsin 3,366 1.6%
California 2,513 1.2%
IDAHO 959 0.4%
New York 861 0.4%
New Mexico 766 0.4%
US Total 12,659 100%
  • In 2017, dry milk exports (60%) were Idaho’s leading dairy export, followed by cheese at 32% (Table 4).
Table 4. Idaho dairy exports, 2017 ($ Million).
Idaho Exports % Share US Exports % Share Idaho/US
All Dry Whey Types* 65.49 26% 714 13% 9%
Milk Albumin (WPI) 45.29 18% 303 6% 15%
Skim Milk Powder (NFDM) 20.55 8% 1,262 23% 2%
Lactose (Solid) 20.05 8% 357 7% 6%
Whole Milk Powder 0.45 0% 72 1% 1%
Preparations for Infant Use 0.04 0% 290 5% 0%
All Dry Milk Types Above 151.87 60% 2,998 55% 5%
Cheese 80.92 32% 1,448 26% 6%
Butter 8.9 4% 103 2% 9%
Fluid Milk and Cream 3.27 1% 113 2% 3%
Other Dairy Products 6.51 3% 819 15% 1%
Total Dairy Exports 251.47 100% 5,481 100% 5%
*Idaho’s dry whey exports (all types) are estimated by the US (dry whey exports [all types] × HS-10/HS-6 ratio in whey category)
  • The top markets for Idaho’s dairy exports are South Korea, China, Mexico, the Netherlands3, Canada, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan, and South America, respectively (Figure 8).
  • In 2017, more than half of Idaho dry milk was exported to China (29%), the Netherlands (17%), and Japan (9%) (Figure 9).
  • South Korea was the biggest market for Idaho cheese exports in 2017. Sixty percent of Idaho cheese was exported to South Korea, 18% to Mexico, and 15% to Australia (Figure 10).
Top markets
Figure 8. Top markets for Idaho dairy exports, 2017.
Dry milk exports
Figure 9. Top 5 markets for Idaho dry milk exports, 2017.
Cheese exports
Figure 10. Top markets for Idaho cheese exports, 2017.

Wheat

  • Idaho ranked sixth in the value of wheat production among US states in 2017. Hard Red Winter wheat, with production totals of 750 million bushels (43% share), led US wheat production. In 2017, white wheat led Idaho’s production with 60.35 million bushels or 67% of total Idaho wheat (Table 5). In the general category of Idaho white wheat, soft white wheat, a favorite in Japan for use in noodles and sponge cake, comprised an 86% share. According to the Idaho Wheat Commission, much of Idaho’s soft white wheat is exported to the Asia-Pacific region.
Table 5. Idaho vs. US wheat production (BU Million), 2017.
Idaho Production
(Million Bushels)
% Share US Production
(Million Bushels)
% Share Idaho/US
White Wheat 60.35 67% 258.19 15% 23%
Soft White Winter 43.42
Soft White Spring 8.47
51.88 86%
Hard White Spring 8.47
Hard Red Spring 18.34 20% 384 22% 5%
Hard Red Winter 10.18 11% 750 43% 1%
Spring Durum 1.85 2% 55 3% 3%
Soft Red Winter 292 17%
Total Wheat 90.72 100% 1,740 100% 5%
  • Idaho also grows hard red spring (HRS) wheat and hard red winter (HRW) wheat for hearth breads, rolls, and croissants. HRS is also used for bagels and pizza crust, and HRW for flatbreads, some types of Asian noodles, and all-purpose flour (US Wheat Associates).
  • Idaho wheat export value increased over the past two years. In 2017, Idaho exported $296 million of wheat, or 71% of the total value of Idaho wheat production ($416 million) (Figure 11).
  • The top foreign markets in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Montana, and North Dakota) for soft white wheat exports in 2017–18 were the Philippines (22%), Japan (15%), South Korea (12%), Indonesia (12%), Yemen (9%), and China (6%) (Figure 12).
Wheat value
Figure 11. Idaho wheat value of production vs. value of exports.
Top destinations
Figure 12. Top destinations for Pacific Northwest soft white wheat exports, market year 2017–18.

Potatoes

  • US total potato production in 2017 was 442 million cwt. Over 90% of US potatoes are fall potatoes, which totaled 401 million cwt in 2017. Idaho is the top state in the nation for fall potato production. One-third of US fall potatoes are grown in Idaho. In 2017, Idaho produced 135 million cwt of fall potatoes, Washington 99 million cwt, and Oregon 21 million cwt. The combined fall potato production for the three Pacific Northwest states was 64% of US total fall potato production (Table 6).
Table 6. Top 5 US states in milk production, 2017.
(Million CWT) % Share of Fall Potato % Share of All Potato
IDAHO 135 34% 31%
Washington 99 25% 22%
Wisconsin 28 7% 6%
North Dakota 24 6% 6%
Oregon 21 5% 5%
Total US Fall Potato 401 100% 91%
Total US Potato 442 100%
  • Roughly 10% of US potatoes are exported to foreign markets, with more than half converted into frozen products/French fries (Figure 13).
  • US potato exports values totaled $1.8 billion in 2017. The top three markets for US potatoes were Japan, Canada, and Mexico. The combined export value for the top ten countries comprised 81% of the total exports value for US potatoes (Figure 14).
  • In 2017, the value of Idaho potato production totaled $975 million. Exports comprised nearly 10% of the production value; processed potatoes encompassed the remainder (91%) (Figure 15). Japan was the top foreign market for US potato exports, while Canada was the top foreign market for Idaho potatoes. Ninety-two percent of Idaho potato exports value comprised five markets: Canada (44%), Mexico (27%), Japan (14%), the United Kingdom (4%), and Malaysia (3%) (Figure 16).

Share of potato exports
Figure 13. Share of US potato exports by product by volume, 2017.
Potato export markets
Figure 14. Top 10 markets for US potato exports, 2017.
Potato export share
Figure 15. Share of Idaho potato exports by product, 2017.
Potato export markets
Figure 16. Top 5 markets for Idaho potato exports, 2017.

Outlook for Idaho Agricultural Exports

Tariffs

In February 2018, the United States imposed additional tariffs on solar panels and washing machines (US Customs and Border Protection, “Section 201 Trade Remedy”); additional tariffs on aluminum and steel from most countries followed in March (US Customs and Border Protection, “Section 232 Tariffs”), and those on certain products from China followed in July and August (US Customs and Border Protection, “Section 301 Trade Remedies”). In response to this series of US tariffs, some of the major US trade partners, Canada, Mexico, China, and the European Union, placed retaliatory tariffs on US products. Agriculture exports, a sector for which the United States has a surplus, became an obvious target of retaliation. Idaho dairy products (25% added tariff from Mexico and China), wheat (25% added tariff from China), and potatoes (20% added tariff from Mexico) are affected due to the added tariffs (Idaho Commerce). Exports of these commodities will fall in those countries while exports to other countries may increase (Zheng et al., 2018).

Dairy Projections

  • Price largely depends on export. USMCA countries continue to be important. The initial impact of opening the Canadian dairy market is projected to be mild. But the elimination of the Canadian Class 7 milk price is a key achievement in the USMCA agreement. Under the Class 7 regime, Canadian milk priced cheaper than the world market price. Eliminating it will increase the competitive advantage of the US milk price in global markets. (Office of the US Trade Representative).

Wheat Projections

  • US wheat exports will rise slightly as stocks increase and plantings decline.
  • Russia will continue to be a strong competitor with the United States in global wheat markets.

Potato Projections

  • The global French fry shortage will not translate into higher Idaho potato prices.
  • Contract volumes for both chip and processing potatoes are likely to increase in 2019.

Exchange rates

Exchange rates play an important role in international trade. A weaker dollar lowers export prices, enabling US farmers to compete better with overseas producers. Indeed, goods sold overseas become cheaper for foreign customers, which stimulates exports. In contrast, a stronger US dollar can translate into weak export markets.

  • The year 2016 was one of the strongest years for the US dollar. The US dollar index peaked in December 2016 and began to fall at the beginning of 2017, then bounced back in October 2017 and kept increasing in 2018. Careful monitoring of the exchange rate risk in the import/export market in the coming year is thus suggested.

Endnotes

1The most recent state export data collected by the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service is from the calendar year 2017. Although most of the data we use in this bulletin relies on that calendar year, we also use market year 2017/18 data for wheat in order to make the data comparable. (return to text)

2The US Census Bureau collected the state export data shown in Figure 1, calculations which are based on the transportation origin of exports (Origin of Movement) rather than the product origin of exports. Many Idaho agriculture products (e.g., Idaho wheat exported to Asia) are credited to other states. Therefore, Idaho’s share of food and agriculture exports is presumably higher than 22%. (return to text)

3Europe’s largest port is the Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Therefore, Idaho’s dairy products are most likely exported all over Europe via the Netherlands. (return to text)


Sources for Figures and Tables

Figure 1. Idaho’s Total Exports by Categories.

Figure 2. Idaho Farm Gate Cash Receipts and Agricultural Exports.

Figure 3. Idaho’s Agricultural Exports Share, 2017.

  • USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), State Export Data, State Agricultural Exports, U.S. agricultural cash receipts-based estimates (Calendar years). U.S. Agricultural Exports, State detail by commodity [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data/.

Figure 4. Idaho’s Primary Categories of Agricultural Exports.

  • USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), State Export Data, State Agricultural Exports, U.S. agricultural cash receipts-based estimates (Calendar years). U.S. Agricultural Exports, State detail by commodity [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data/.

Figure 5. Growth of Idaho’s Primary Agricultural Exports Categories (Based on the Export Value in 2000).

  • USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), State Export Data, State Agricultural Exports, U.S. agricultural cash receipts-based estimates (Calendar years). U.S. Agricultural Exports, State detail by commodity [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data/.

Figure 6. Top Markets for U.S. Agricultural Exports, 2017.

Figure 7. Idaho Top Destinations of Agricultural Exports, 2017.

Figure 8. Top Markets for Idaho Dairy Exports, 2017.

Figure 9. Top 5 Markets for Idaho Dry Milk Exports, 2017.

Figure 10. Top Markets for Idaho Cheese Exports, 2017.

Figure 11. Idaho Wheat Value of Production vs. Value of Exports.

Figure 12. Top Destinations for Pacific Northwest Soft White Wheat Exports, Market Year 2017–18.

Figure 13. Share of US Potato Exports by Product by Volume, 2017.

Figure 14. Top 10 Markets for US Potato Exports, 2017.

Figure 15. Share of Idaho Potato Exports by Product, 2017.

Figure 16. Top 5 Markets for Idaho Potato Exports, 2017.

Table 1. Idaho Agricultural Exports Value in 2017 Versus 2016.

  • USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), State Export Data, State Agricultural Exports, U.S. agricultural cash receipts-based estimates (Calendar years). U.S. Agricultural Exports, State detail by commodity [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data/.
  • USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), State Export Data, State Agricultural Exports, U.S. agricultural cash receipts-based estimates (Calendar years). U.S. Agricultural Exports, Commodity detail by State [New series]: Calendar years 2000–2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/state-export-data/.

Table 2. Top 5 US States in Milk Production, 2017.

Table 3. Top 5 US States in Cheese Production, 2017.

Table 4. Idaho Dairy Exports, 2017 ($ Million).

Table 5. Idaho vs. US Wheat Production (BU Million), 2017.

Table 6. Top 5 US States in Potato Production, 2017.


References

Idaho Commerce. “Retaliatory Tariffs on Idaho Products.” March 2019. https://commerce.idaho.gov/content/uploads/2018/12/Final-Retaliatory-Tariffs-impact-on-Idaho-Products-July-August-September-April.pdf.

Office of the US Trade Representative. “United States-Mexico-Canada Trade Fact Sheet. Agriculture: Market Access and Dairy Outcomes of the USMC Agreement.” https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/united-states-mexico-canada-agreement/fact-sheets/market-access-and-dairy-outcomes.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248. https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf.

US Customs and Border Protection. “Section 201 Trade Remedy on Solar Cells and Panels, and Washing Machines and Parts.” https://www.cbp.gov/trade/remedies/201-solar-cells-panels-washing-machines

US Customs and Border Protection. “Section 232 Tariffs on Aluminum and Steel.” https://www.cbp.gov/trade/remedies/232-tariffs-aluminum-and-steel.

US Customs and Border Protection. “Section 301 Trade Remedies to be Assessed on Certain Products from China.” https://www.cbp.gov/trade/remedies/301-certain-products-china.

US Wheat Associates. “Wheat Classes.” https://www.uswheat.org/working-with-buyers/wheat-classes/.

Zheng, Yuqing, Dallas Wood, H. Holly Wang, and Jason P.H. Jones. “Predicting Potential Impacts of China’s Retaliatory Tariffs on the US Farm Sector.” Choices 33, no. 2 (2018): 1–6.

About the Authors

Xiaoxue Du—Assistant Professor, University of Idaho (UI) Moscow, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology

R. Garth Taylor—Extension Specialist, Associate Professor, UI Moscow, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology

Norm Ruhoff—Director, Agricultural Commodity Risk Management Program; Clinical Assistant Professor, UI Moscow, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology


Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Barbara Petty, Director of University of Idaho Extension, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844. The University of Idaho has a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, age, disability or status as a Vietnam-era veteran.

University of Idaho Extension

 

Physical Address:
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Mailing Address:
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Phone: 208-885-7982

Fax: 208-885-9046

Email: calspubs@uidaho.edu

Location

Barbara Petty

Email: extdir@uidaho.edu